The current situation and development measures of

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The current situation and development measures of China's CNC industry

CNC system is one of the core technologies of CNC products. Since the late 1950s, China has begun to study CNC technology and develop CNC products, with three ups and downs. After years of continuous adjustment, optimization, reorganization and development, China's CNC industry has made major breakthroughs through self-study, introduction and cooperation, independent development and promotion of industrialization. On the occasion of celebrating the 50th anniversary of the founding of the people's Republic of China, we can confidently say that China's CNC industry has passed the most difficult period and began to forge ahead on the road of industrialization. While full of confidence, we should also be soberly aware that China's CNC industry, which is moving towards the new century, is facing more severe challenges despite new development opportunities, and needs to climb a new historic level with greater courage, wisdom and efforts

1 current situation of the industrialization of numerical control system in China

1.1 basic situation of numerical control industry there are more than 100 numerical control machine tool manufacturers in China, of which 42 enterprises can produce in batch (30 state-owned enterprises, 5 private enterprises, 7 joint ventures and sole proprietorships), with an average annual output of 40 ~ 50 units, and the annual output of several key enterprises can reach 400 ~ 700 units; There are about 50 enterprises producing toxic and harmful materials for CNC system (including spindle and feed drive unit), but there are 8 enterprises producing certain batches, including 3 state-owned enterprises, 2 private enterprises, and 3 joint ventures and sole proprietorships; There are more than 300 enterprises producing CNC machine tool supporting products, with more than 2000 kinds of products in eight categories. There are three types of CNC systems in China, namely, economical, popular and advanced. This is divided according to the actual situation of China's current market demand and the phased standards of different fields and complexity of technology application. Among the economical CNC systems, we have great advantages. At present, in the market where the main body of Jinan experimental machine and dynamometer do not need special foundation for the installation of thousands of economical CNC lathes and electric machining machines every year, the domestic CNC system is "unique" (10% of which are joint venture products). We are making progress in the market of popular CNC systems. Since the 1990s, on the basis of the principle of concentrating advantages, breaking through the key, giving priority to ourselves and developing the industry, China's research forces in all aspects of numerical control system have gradually formed the basic forces of state-owned enterprises mainly producing universal numerical control systems, such as aerospace numerical control group, Electromechanical group, central China numerical control, Lantian numerical control and other joint ventures, such as Beijing FANUC, Siemens numerical control (Nanjing) Co., Ltd. Of course, the CNC system with independent copyright in China still needs to make greater efforts in market development

1.2 technical status since the 1980s, the state has attached great importance to the development of CNC machine tools. It has experienced the digestion, absorption and introduction of technology during the "sixth five year plan" and "Seventh Five Year Plan", and the two stages of scientific and technological research and development of independent copyright CNC system during the "Eighth Five Year Plan", which has laid a good foundation for the industrialization of CNC machine tools and made considerable progress. During the Ninth Five Year Plan period, the development of CNC machine tools has entered the stage of industrialization. There are 300 newly developed varieties of CNC machine tools, which have a certain coverage. Most of the newly developed domestic CNC machine tools have reached the international level in the mid-1980s and some have reached the level in the 1990s, providing a number of high-level CNC machine tools for national key construction. Breakthroughs have also been made in technology, such as high-speed spindle manufacturing technology (12000 r/min ~ 18000 r/min), rapid feed (60 m/min), rapid tool change (1.5 s), flexible manufacturing, rapid prototyping manufacturing technology, etc., which lay the foundation for the next development of domestic CNC machine tools. At present, China's CNC system is in a critical period of transition from the research and development stage to the promotion and application stage, and also from a closed system to an open system. In terms of production scale, there are industrialization bases that can realize mass production, such as aerospace CNC group, Huazhong CNC System Co., Ltd., Beijing Machine Tool Research Institute, etc

China's CNC system has become mature in technology, and has reached the advanced level of foreign countries in major key technologies (including core technologies). At present, 80 kinds of CNC systems have been newly developed. Since the Seventh Five Year Plan, the state has always supported the development of numerical control system as a top priority. Now it has developed a numerical control system with Chinese copyright and mastered some key technologies that have been blocked by foreign countries. For example, the multi coordinate linkage technology, which has plagued China for a long time and has been blocked by western countries, is no longer a problem for us. 0.1 μ M equivalent ultra precision numerical control system, numerical control profiling system, non-circular gear processing system, high-speed feed numerical control system, real-time multi task operation system have been developed successfully. In particular, the open intelligent CNC system based on PC can implement multi axis control and has functions such as connecting incoming lines. It can be used as an independent product and a generation of open development platform, creating conditions for the secondary development of machine tool plants and software developers. Especially important, the reliability of CNC system in China has been greatly improved, and the mpbf value can be more than 15000 H. At the same time, most of the supporting products of CNC machine tools have been produced domestically, and the self matching rate is more than 60%. These achievements have laid a foundation for the self-development and production of CNC systems in China

2 problems faced by the development of CNC industry

2.1 lack of industrial scale in a period of time, China's CNC machine tool product varieties are relatively small, the development and delivery cycle is long, because it is not developed according to market demand, the batch is small, it can not meet market demand, and the market share is low; The quality is unstable (reliability is the prominent quality crux), the performance level is relatively far behind that of foreign countries, and the competitiveness is not strong; The investment in software development is insufficient, and the developed CNC system lacks common software specifications and support platform. It has not yet achieved serialization and commercialization, and has no industrial scale

2.2 there is a lack of policy and technical supporting system for the development of CNC industry. For more than 40 years, the Chinese government has given a lot of financial and material support to the development of CNC machine tools, and has also issued some supporting measures in policy, which has played a good role in promoting the development of CNC machine tools. However, the supporting policies and mutual constraints are not enough. While introducing foreign capital and expanding opening-up, the necessary protection for domestic CNC machine tools is too thin. For example, imported products can be exempted from tariffs and import link taxes, while domestic products can rarely enjoy this treatment. At the same time, the development of CNC machine tools needs a higher component specialized technology supporting system to support, and the overall level of China's industrial development can not meet the establishment of this system. The state has no major measures to establish this supporting system, and there is also a lack of corresponding policy support, so it has not played a more powerful role in promoting the development of CNC industry

2.3 lack of internal impetus for technological innovation, product renewal and industrial adjustment. In 1994, the total output value of machine tool industry (constant price in 1990) reached 17.6 billion yuan, the sales revenue reached 20 billion yuan, and the total output of machine tools reached a record 260000 sets. The proportion of ordinary machine tools and general cutting tools is as high as 93%, but the proportion of CNC machine tools, special machine tools and various automatic lines is very small. Stimulated by the overheated economic growth at that time, all kinds of products were in short supply. Under the situation of good sales momentum of ordinary machine tools, the machine tool industry is confused by the market illusion. Most enterprises take into account the immediate interests and do not adjust in time by relying on the growing financial resources. Instead, they blindly increase the output of ordinary machine tools, abandon the industrial adjustment, product adjustment and organizational structure adjustment that have begun, relax technological innovation, and fail to see the development trend of the industry, thus missing the best opportunity for adjustment, It has lost the technological foundation and product foundation for further development

2.4 facing the huge pressure of competition from foreign strong players, since the 1990s, China's domestic market for CNC machine tools and CNC systems has grown rapidly, becoming the target of industrial developed countries. In the face of strong international competitors, domestic CNC machine tools and CNC systems are difficult to compete with products from developed countries in terms of performance, quality and price, and face strong pressure from import shocks

3 conditions for the development of China's numerical control industry

3.1 steadily growing market demand China's numerical control machine tools have developed rapidly since the 1980s, with an average annual output growth of more than 20%; The market consumption of CNC machine tools increased from 2588 in 1990 to 18000 in 1996; At present, it is the third largest importer of CNC machine tools in the world. Since the 1990s, China's CNC machine tool manufacturing enterprises have experienced a hard process of structural adjustment and mechanism transformation. Due to the change of market structure, the market consumption of CNC machine tools fell to 14329 in 1997. At the same time, due to the reduction of imports, the market share of domestic CNC machine tools has risen to 45.9%, and the parameter statements that are not filled in will not be printed; In 1998, the market consumption of CNC machine tools fell to 11528, and the market share of domestic CNC machine tools reached 53%. From 1994 to 1998, the output value of China's machine tool industry continued to decline. Due to market changes and structural adjustment, the market capacity was reduced to 75% of the original, and the total output value was 14.96 billion yuan, of which metal processing machine tools were about more than 9 billion yuan, with a market share of 47%. The total output of machine tools (metal cutting and forging) was only 100000, while among the sales of 100000 machine tools, the automatic production line of CNC machine tools and various advanced cutting tools reached 27.7%. It is precisely because of structural changes that it is possible to form a situation of declining output and increasing market share. Recently, in order to expand domestic demand, the state has increased investment in technological transformation and infrastructure construction to stimulate domestic market consumption. The "national financial technical transformation project" and the "high-tech industrialization project" under implementation will form a new market demand for CNC machine tools. This will bring new market opportunities for the development of China's CNC industry

3.2 existing development conditions

(1) at present, the annual production capacity of China's major CNC machine tool manufacturers is 10000, including more than 5000 economic CNC machine tools. By the end of the ninth five year plan, the number of CNC machine tools that can quickly cure the coating of plastic substrates has reached 15000

(2) by the end of the ninth five year plan, the production capacity of CNC systems in China was 15000 sets, including about 6500 sets of economic CNC systems

(3) China's major CNC machine tool supporting enterprises have begun to take shape. Among them, CNC tool holders, ball screws, rolling guide rails and machine tool electrical appliances have introduced technology, which can support the host machine

(4) through the technological transformation during the "Eighth Five Year Plan" and "Ninth Five Year Plan", China's major CNC machine tool manufacturers have greatly improved the production capacity of CNC machine tools, imported a number of key processing equipment, improved the processing quality and efficiency of key parts, built a number of assembly and commissioning plants, improved the equipment conditions for CNC machine tool manufacturing, and basically have the industrialized production capacity

4 development ideas and development strategies

the general idea for the next development of the machine tool industry is "limiting general production and developing numerical control", that is, limiting the development of ordinary machine tools through laws and administrative regulations, constantly reducing their output, and replacing ordinary machine tools by vigorously developing products such as numerical control machines urgently needed in the market. Objectively examine the current situation of China's CNC system, combined with China's current macroeconomic operation environment

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