Discussion on the status of accounting for the hot

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Discussion on the status of packaging accounting

Abstract: the duality of economic attributes and the diversity of uses of packaging have brought related problems to the confirmation and accounting of packaging compared with traditional equipment. This paper believes that the conditions for packaging as an independent accounting item are not sufficient, so reorganizing the existing inventory items and reducing the accounting status of packaging are the options to solve the problems related to packaging

key words: confirmation of the independence of packaging status inventory restructuring

I. The Origin of packaging accounting problems

packaging is regarded as an independent asset in the enterprise inventory in the current enterprise accounting system, and a separate "packaging" account is set up for accounting. The current accounting textbooks generally define "packaging" as "all kinds of packaging containers reserved for packaging the goods of the enterprise, such as barrels, boxes, bottles, jars, bags, etc." it can be seen that the definition of packaging is defined from its physical shape and function, but this paper believes that this definition does not really distinguish packaging from other inventory assets, The fuzziness and overlap of its boundary bring difficulties to the confirmation of packaging materials, and also bring related problems to the accounting of packaging materials

II. Relevant problems in the current accounting of packaging materials

modern accounting theory believes that accounting is divided into four links: confirmation, recording, recording and reporting, and "confirmation" is the first link of accounting. Confirmation affects the measurement, recording and reporting of accounting, and even the quality of accounting information. This article only discusses the confirmation of packaging and related accounting issues

(I) nature of packaging

1. The dual economic attributes of packaging

it is obvious that the accounting attribute of packaging is a current asset and a part of inventory. Generally speaking, according to the economic attribute of inventory, inventory can be divided into two categories. One category is labor objects, such as raw materials, products in process, entrusted processing materials, inventory goods, etc. they are the carrier of enterprise production and labor value, as well as the carrier of enterprise capital movement; The other is labor means, represented by low-value consumables, which together with fixed assets provide labor conditions for enterprise production as a labor tool. Materially, it does not form a product entity, but gradually transfers its value to the labor object - "product" through amortization. According to the current definition of packaging, packaging can be divided into two parts. One part is the packaging as an integral part of enterprise goods, such as the packaging box of TV, the box of packaging shirt, the bottle of wine, etc. this part of packaging has belonged to "labor object" from the economic attribute; The other part of the packaging is the packaging container for the enterprise to save or keep another kind of inventory, such as oil barrels, wine jars, etc. this part of the packaging is essentially a "labor means" (or "labor tools"). Therefore, packaging is a special inventory with two "identities", which brings complexity to the confirmation of packaging

2. Diversity of uses of packaging

packaging is difficult to distinguish from its uses or functions, because its uses are diverse

(1) regarded as "packaging" of raw materials. There is a kind of packaging, which is mainly used in the production of products and forms the entity of products like raw materials. Therefore, it is generally accounted for as raw materials

(2) regarded as the "package" of the tool. This kind of packaging material is the packaging container or packaging appliance needed for keeping or preserving other inventories of the enterprise. Although these packaging materials have the appearance and function of "packaging", they are essentially just a "labor tool", Therefore, it can be regarded as some low-value consumables with "packaging" function (if the value meets the standard of fixed assets, they should also be classified as "almost blank in most places; on the other hand, China's industry has developed rapidly in recent years, fixed assets")

(3) packages that are not priced separately are sold with the goods. These packages are packages that are sold together with the goods during the sales process, or provide convenience for the storage of the goods, or for the aesthetic consideration of the goods, or for the convenience of customers, and do not charge customers separately

(4) packages priced separately are sold with the goods. Although these packages are also sold together with the goods, because of their high value and customers generally have the right to choose (such as gift boxes for some foods), they are separately charged outside the commodity price for customers who need them. Such packaging materials are common in enterprises dealing in food and gifts

(5) rented packaging. The packaging materials rented and lent by enterprises are generally related to the sales of enterprises, and they are some reusable packaging materials. In the process of leasing packaging materials, the enterprise collects rent from the lessee, and lending is the enterprise lending packaging materials to the other party free of charge

the duality of the nature of packaging and the diversity of uses have brought uncertainty to the definition of packaging, shaken the status of packaging as an independent accounting item, and brought some problems in the recognition of packaging

(II) current accounting of packaging materials

the specific methods of confirmation and relevant accounting of packaging materials at present are generally based on the enterprise accounting system (2001). However, the packaging referred to in the packaging accounting provided by the system is only a part of the packaging referred to in the concept of packaging, which not only affects the normal measurement of the experimental machine, but can be summarized as follows:

1. The packaging not calculated according to "packaging" is mainly divided into the following two categories:

(1) a part of the "packaging treated as raw materials" mentioned above, such as paper, rope, iron wire, iron sheet, etc, Because its packaging function is not obvious, it is accounted as a common "raw material" and separated from "packaging"

(2) as mentioned above, "the 'packaging' of deemed tools", this kind of packaging is accounted for separately according to its value. Those whose value reaches the fixed assets standard are classified as "fixed assets" for accounting, while those who fail to meet the fixed assets value standard are accounted as "low value consumables". Although this kind of packaging materials meet the definition of packaging materials in terms of function, they are also stripped from the scope of packaging materials because they overlap with other accounting items in terms of economic nature

2. The packaging accounted as "packaging" is divided into the following four situations:

(1) packaging as a part of the product. Such as paper packaging boxes used in TV production, bottles or cans used in beer sprinkling production, etc. At the time of production requisition, these packaging materials, like other raw materials, form the physical entity of the product, which is transformed into the manufacturing cost of the product from the value. Therefore, when collecting production, the following entries should be made:

debit: production cost

Credit: packaging

material cost difference (when inventory is priced at planned cost, the same below)

(2) packaging sold with goods but not priced separately. This part of packaging is generally used as a means of enterprise promotion and provides convenient packaging for customers. Therefore, the value of such packaging materials should be converted into an "operating expense" of the enterprise. The following entries should be made during sales collection:

debit: operating expenses

Credit: packaging

material cost difference

(3) packaging sold with goods and priced separately. Like the above packaging materials, this kind of packaging materials are also used in the process of product sales, but the packaging materials are separately "priced" and charged to customers. Therefore, accounting is equivalent to material sales, and the income generated is treated as "other business income". At the same time, its "output tax" is calculated as a tax item of value-added tax. Therefore, when receiving the packaging money, the following entries should be made:

debit: bank deposit

Credit: other business income

taxes payable - value added tax payable (output tax)

when carrying forward the packaging cost:

debit: other business expenses

Credit: packaging

material cost difference

(4) rented and lent packaging. This kind of packaging is provided to customers in the form of "lease" without ownership transfer, which is also different from the above (1) - (3) packaging in accounting. The accounting of packaging materials in the form of rent is generally divided into several links: deposit collection, rent collection, cost carry forward and deposit return, in which the rent income is treated as "other business income". The packaging materials in the form of lending do not generate income, but only costs, which are generally regarded as promotional expenses in accounting, and are recorded as "operating expenses". Other accounting links are the same as leasing. The business and entries of packaging materials rented and lent are shown in the following table:

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normal align=center> entries

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