Discussion on the sustainable development of autom

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Discussion of plastics on the sustainable development of automobile industry

sustainable development refers to the ability to meet the needs of modern people without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. In other words, it refers to the development of ammonia smell or other fault precursors found by the economic, social, resource and environmental protection association. They are an inseparable system, which not only aims to achieve the purpose of economic development, but also protects the natural resources and environment such as atmosphere, fresh water, ocean, land and forest, on which good people depend, so that future generations can achieve sustainable development and live and work in peace and contentment

in order to adapt to the new form, promote the construction and development of China's circular economy system, protect the environment, improve the utilization rate of resources, implement the scientific concept of development, and realize the sustainable development of social economy, the national development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of science and technology and the State Environmental Protection Administration jointly issued the "policy for the recycling of automotive products" on February 6, 2006. The state will also establish the relevant systems proposed in the "automobile product recycling policy" in due time, and will begin to promulgate and implement them before 2010. At present, the main management regulations are:

(1) measures for the administration of vehicle recyclability and certification of prohibited substances (discussion draft)

(2) investigation of toxic and harmful substances in China's automotive products and suggestions on the management of prohibited substances

(3) sampling and determination methods of volatile organic compounds and aldehyde ketones in HJ t vehicles implemented by the State Environmental Protection Administration in March 2008

in the technical policy for the recycling of automobile products (), it is mainly required that automobile and related enterprises should clearly stipulate the sustainability of product materials involved in the stages of automobile production, decoration, repair and maintenance, and automobile recycling and reuse, starting from product design, And "strive to achieve the maximum moving speed of the left piston in 2017: 70mm/min; and keep the recyclability of the vehicle products produced and sold in China in line with the international advanced level". The announcement mainly considers two principles. The first principle is to comprehensively consider the reuse of materials in the production, maintenance, disassembly and other links of automobile products, encourage the use of renewable materials in the process of automobile manufacturing, encourage the use of recycled parts during maintenance, improve the recycling rate of materials, save resources and effectively use energy, and vigorously develop circular economy. The second principle is to strengthen the development and application of new technologies and equipment in all links of the automobile industry chain, and take "reduction, reuse and recycling" as the principle

plastic is one of the important basic materials in modern automobile industry, which is widely used in automotive interior and exterior trim parts and functional structural parts. The sustainable development of automotive industry cannot be separated from plastic. The contribution of plastic to the sustainable development of automotive industry application is mainly reflected in four aspects: energy conservation and emission reduction, green environmental protection, fire safety and recycling. These four aspects are described in detail below

energy saving and emission reduction - replacing steel with plastics and reducing body weight

from the oil crisis in the 1970s to the high oil price in 2008, it will seriously hit the global automotive industry every time, and also promote the global automotive industry to think about how to use oil efficiently and develop the industry sustainably:

● develop small displacement vehicles

● replace steel with plastics, Reduce body weight

● use plastic instead of glass

● use lightweight materials

● hybrid electric vehicles

● use diesel vehicles

"replace steel with plastic to reduce body weight", which is an important contribution of plastics to the sustainable development of the automotive industry. For every 10% reduction in body weight, fuel consumption will be reduced by 6-8%. High oil prices have led to high vehicle owner costs, low fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions have led to environmental pollution, reducing body weight, reducing fuel consumption, better cleaning the environment, and replacing steel with plastic will continue. Take Passat, a European model, as an example. The plastic consumption of 97 models was 129kg/vehicle, which reached 203kg/vehicle in 2005. The plastic consumption increased by 57%, and its proportion in the body weight also increased from about 8% to about 14%, with an amazing increase. While the proportion of plastics in the weight of car bodies has increased, we have also observed that polypropylene materials, due to its low density and good comprehensive performance, are used more and more widely, and there is a trend to replace traditional engineering plastics

"replacing steel with plastic and reducing the weight of the car body" is due to the rapid development of the plastic industry and excellent performance, which can greatly reduce the cost, easy to design, reduce the number of parts and lower the assembly cost. For example, the long glass fiber reinforced PP material appeared in recent years has been widely used in automotive front-end modules, door inner panels and other components to replace sheet metal parts due to its superior performance; Adopt ultrasonic or vibration friction welding with three-layer structure of instrument panel, upper air duct and lower air duct to replace metal steering support; Using ppo+pa to produce plastic fender instead of sheet metal fender; Use PC and advanced injection molding equipment to produce windows instead of car glass; Gas and liquid assisted forming technology improves product strength and replaces complex sheet metal parts; Six layer coextruded plastic fuel tank is used instead of metal fuel tank, which can meet increasingly stringent emission regulations at the same time

green environmental protection

pollution in the car will cause dizziness, nausea, sneezing and even various serious diseases of drivers and passengers. When the windows are closed, about 65% of drivers often suffer from dizziness, sleepiness, cough, hair loss, insomnia and other symptoms, resulting in drivers feeling depressed, irritable and inattentive. Drivers and passengers driving or riding in this dirty environment for a long time are very likely to cause discomfort and disease, and even induce traffic accidents. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out green environmental protection certification for interior materials

for the materials in the carriage, the automotive industry mainly controls five aspects: odor odor; Fog test fog; Volatile matter VOC; Total volatile organic matter TVOC; Toxic and harmful substances: heavy metals, PBBs and PBDEs

odor test

for the odor test of plastic parts or plastic raw materials, the sample is generally placed in a 1L odor bottle, then heated to a certain temperature, such as 80 ℃, constant temperature for 2h, taken out and cooled to 60 ℃, and then the odor is evaluated. Common standards such as vda270 and Volkswagen's pv3900, gme3025/60276 and other odor test methods. The general classification standard is:

odor evaluation

grade 1 no odor

grade 2 has odor, but there is no interference, pungent odor

grade 3 has obvious odor, but there is no interference, pungent odor

grade 4 has interference, pungent odor

grade 5 has strong interference, pungent odor

grade 6 has intolerable odor

due to the subjectivity of odor test, its test results and process have been confused by the industry. Generally, the requirements of main engine manufacturers are less than or equal to the level 3 standard, but at present, plastic raw materials and most additives cannot meet the level 3 requirements. The smell of automotive plastics produced with these raw materials and additives is more difficult to meet the requirements

haze testing fog

fog testing is mainly a test method for volatile substances condensed on glass or aluminum foil. The light transmittance method or the gravimetric method can be adopted. The gravimetric method is simple to operate and widely used. It is generally specified that the standard can be reached within 2mg

volatile organic compounds voc

voc (volatile organic compounds) refers to organic compounds that are easily volatile at room temperature. At present, there is no internationally recognized standard for which substances belong to the VOC that needs to be controlled in the vehicle. Major OEMs independently determine the VOC range of their enterprises. The more common ones are trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, formaldehyde, toluene, benzene, xylene, etc., as well as ethanol and ketones. For hydrocarbons, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) can be used, and for aldehydes and ketones, DNPH pipes are needed to collect them and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used for determination

VOC in the car mainly comes from volatile components such as organic solvents, additives and additives contained in car carpets, plastic parts of dashboard, roof felt, seats, glue used in other decoration, rubber parts, fabrics, paint coatings, thermal insulation foam materials, adhesives and other materials. For plastic parts, the mold release agent used in the injection molding process, rust prevention on the mold, A. oil at the joint of screw and base, etc. also have a great impact on the VOC of plastic parts

There are many VOC test standards, such as vda276/277/278, and their test values vary greatly due to different pretreatment, sampling methods and test instruments. The sampling and determination method of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes and ketones in HJ t vehicles implemented by the State Environmental Protection Administration in March 2008. For plastic injection molded parts, the bag method is generally used; For plastic raw materials, headspace method is generally used for testing

research shows that plastic parts contribute little to VOC in the carriage, and high VOC in the carriage mainly comes from other materials, such as foam, adhesives, paint, leather, felt products, glue, detergent, etc

total volatile organic compounds TVOC

total volatile organic compounds TVOC, according to the definition of gb/t, refers to the volatile organic compounds that are sampled by Tenax GC or Tenax TA, analyzed by non-polar chromatographic column (polarity index less than 10), and the retention time is between n-hexane and n-hexadecane. Vda277 refers to the sum of compounds whose peak area meets certain requirements with hs-gc-fid test instrument under certain test conditions, calculated with acetone as standard sample and converted into carbon content, so it is also called total carbon

the TVOC in the carriage is consistent with the source of VOC. The research also shows that the contribution of plastic parts to the TVOC in the carriage is relatively small, and the high TVOC in the carriage mainly comes from other materials, such as foam, adhesives, paint, leather, felt products, glue, detergent, etc

for plastic materials or injection molded parts, the limit value of TVOC is also affected by the adopted standards, sampling methods and testing instruments. At present, European and American models are generally checked by hs-gc-fid (such as Volkswagen's pv3341/vda277 and gme8081), and the general limit value is 50g c/g。 The test value of bag atd-gc-ms method is very high

toxic and harmful substances (heavy metals, polybrominated biphenyls)

drawing on the ELV regulations of the European Union, the Chinese version of ELV regulations has also stipulated the harmful heavy metals involved in parts in the automotive industry: lead, hexavalent chromium, mercury, cadmium and polybrominated biphenyls PBBs, PBDEs. It is required to meet the regulatory requirements on January 1, 2012 (except for the applications specified in the exemption regulations), and some parts that must be used need to be marked

fire safety

there are corresponding standards at home and abroad for the fire safety in the carriage. For example, the current national standard GB8410 "combustion characteristics of automotive interior materials" stipulates that the combustion speed of interior materials should not be greater than 100mm/min, and some foreign standards stipulate that the combustion speed should be less than or equal to 80mm/min

for general all plastic parts, no matter PP, PE, ABS, PA, PC and other engineering plastics can be met, and there is no technical difficulty


foreign countries have their own characteristics in the management of automobile product recycling rate: Japan is one-step, based on the results of car dismantling; The EU is divided into two steps: system certification and spot check; China's dismantling industry is not standardized, and the national conditions are more suitable to learn from the EU model. Automotive materials database is an important supporting tool for China to implement the recycling rate of automotive products and the management of banned/restricted hazardous substances. At present, the choice is to establish "China Auto"

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